a) Social studies b) physical environment c) environment d) school. For example, OECD data indicate that the United States has the highest prevalence of “pro-social behavior,” defined as volunteering time, donating to charities, and helping strangers (OECD, 2011e). QUESTION 2: ARE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS WORSE IN THE UNITED STATES THAN IN OTHER HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES? Esoma.Ke Home; Kids Learning; ... Every map has symbols which represent physical and man-made features on a map. A review of spatial variability in access to healthy foods found that food deserts—areas with limited proximity to stores that sell healthy foods—were more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries (Beaulac et al., 2009). QUESTION 1: DO ENVIRONMENTAL Saved from google.co.in. There is some evidence that environmental factors that could affect the U.S. health disadvantage are worse or are more inequitably distributed in the United States than in other high-income countries. How far man influences nature and to what extent nature delivers its bounties constitute another objective of environmental studies. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of the U.S. health disadvantage will require recognizing how the environment interacts with these other factors and helps perpetuate or mitigate the disadvantage across a broad set of health domains. Other working conditions and work-related policies for U.S. employees often differ from those of workers in peer countries. 8Analytical complexities make the isolation of these effects difficult in observational studies. In many ways, the environment can be thought of as the mid- or “meso-” level of influence linking macrolevel factors (e.g., economic and social policy) and microlevel processes (e.g., individual behavior). It is noteworthy that these environmental factors may interact with other factors at both “higher” levels of broad social policy and “lower” levels that operate at the individual level. Dietary options on cafeteria menus and in vending machines, opportunities for physical activity, and health education curricula are all important to children’s health. What also seems important is the stability of social connections, such as the composition and stability of households7 and the existence of stable and supportive local social environments or neighborhoods in which to live and work. Strong spatial variation is present for a large range of. Another large body of work has documented how walking and physical activity levels are affected by access to recreational facilities, land use mix, transportation systems, and urban planning and design (Auchinloss et al., 2008; Diez Roux et al., 2001; Ding et al., 2011; Durand et al., 2011; Gordon-Larsen et al., 2006; Heath, 2009; Kaczynski and Henderson, 2008; McCormack and Shiell, 2011; Transportation Research Board, 2005). Weather is the atmospheric condition of a place at a particular time. It varies from different places because of the changes in climate condition, Types of Vegetational belts/The Nigeria forest is divided into, JSS1 Social Studies Third Term: Physical Environment. Given the established correlation between neighborhood, race, and socioeconomic composition and various health-related neighborhood resources in the United States, this greater segregation could also result in greater exposure of some population sectors to harmful environments (Lovasi et al., 2009). Many of the environmental factors relevant to health are directly amenable to policy. Transportation behavior also differs between the United States and other high-income countries, with U.S. residents walking and cycling substantially less than Europeans (Bassett et al., 2008; Buehler et al., 2011; Hallal et al., 2012). Studies conducted in the United States and other high-income countries have found that “walkability” (which is measured by such proxies as building density, land use mix, and street connectivity) predicts walking patterns (Durand et al., 2011; Inoue et al., 2009; Sundquist et al., 2011; Van Dyck et al., 2010). The proportion of “any cycling” was extremely low and stable in the United States, at 1.8 percent, while it increased in Germany from 12.1 to 14.1 percent. recent evidence also suggests that residential segregation by income and neighborhood disadvantage has been increasing over time in the United States (Reardon and Bischoff, 2011). health outcomes, including many of the outcomes for which there are cross-national health differences, such as noncommunicable diseases, associated risk factors, injuries, and violence. Below we review the possible contributions of the environment to major conditions for which U.S. health disadvantages have been documented. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. All units of the second course emphasize the process of development whereby man, coping with given conditions in his physical environment, develops established ways of dealing with the … For example, a recent review of studies from the late 1990s to mid-2000s found a consistent inverse relationship between airborne particulate matter and birth weight in Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Parker et al., 2011a). It is a broad field of study that includes the natural environment, the built … Social Studies is a field of study which deals with man, his relation with other men and his environment; its content is drawn from several social sciences. Environmental factors also operate over a person’s life course, so that the environments one experiences early in life may influence health trajectories over time. In social studies, history, and geography, and all the subjects in Canadian and world studies, students We have noted that there exist variations over the surface of the earth in its physical as well as cultural environment. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Environmental studies refer to an extensive and systematic study of nature/environment and of its physical, biological, social, and cultural factors, and the nature and characteristics of relationship between man and environment. Class 8 Social Studies on Map Reading and interpretation.Learn how to identify Features on a map, The climatic conditions of the area as well as measure distance, area and tell the direction. ... A functional study of Natural and Physical sciences and Fine Arts. The factors in the physical environment that are important to health include harmful substances, such as air pollution or proximity to toxic sites (the focus of classic environmental epidemiology); access to various health-related resources (e.g., healthy or unhealthy foods, recreational resources, medical care); and community design and the “built environment” (e.g., land use mix, street connectivity, transportation systems). The aim of social group is to bring people as. Although the panel did not undertake a systematic comparison of workplace conditions in the United States and other countries, it did note that U.S. employees work substantially longer hours than their counterparts in many other high-income countries. One recent review found that access to open space (parks and other green spaces) in neighborhoods was associated with physical activity levels in both the United States and Australia (Pearce and Maddison, 2011). worksheet on physical features of india. This chapter, like others before it, focuses on three questions: • Do environmental factors matter to health? There are fewer data to compare rates of other crimes across countries. In particular, particles that are less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (“fine” particles) are thought to pose the largest health risks (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Transportation systems and other aspects of physical environments that influence driving behaviors are also related to injury morbidity and mortality (Douglas et al., 2011). Higher Education. In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight (Christakis and Fowler, 2007), which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify. Military Families. Thus, individual and environmental factors may be part of a reinforcing cycle that creates and perpetuates health differences. Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods (as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures) has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children (Cubbin et al., 2000; Durkin et al., 1994). environment and fulfill his possibilities’ (Y.K.Singh, p.22). Social environments may also operate. 10Findings on job strain have not been consistent, raising the question of whether these are primarily markers of socioeconomic position, which can influence health through other plausible material or psychosocial pathways (Eaker et al., 2004; Greenlund et al., 2010). For example, the health of some nations is affected by their geography or climate. the most frequently studied,2 but other contexts may also be important for certain segments of the population.3. Topic: Physical Environment and Climatic Condition, Physical Environment is the part of the human environment that includes purely physical factors (as soil, climate, water supply). Thus, they are key candidates as explanatory factors for health differences across geographic areas, such as countries. Compass A compass helps find direction of … 6Other factors that are also frequently discussed, such as social norms, have been more difficult to study because of a variety of methodological and data challenges. Educational process of development occurs in physical, social, cultural and psychological environment. Types of environment The Social Environment Cardinal Points Governing our Community Characteristics of a community The family community The school community The Coat- of - Arms The … For example, aside from their direct links to injury mortality (see Chapter 1), violence and drug use may be indirect markers of social environmental features that affect other health outcomes. Jun 22, 2016 - Image result for worksheet on physical features of india. 4Although in the U.S. context a number of studies have reported associations of local access to healthy foods with diet, some studies have not detected such associations (Cummins et al., 2005; Pearce et al., 2008). A person’s social environment is their society and all surroundings influenced in some way by humans. Resilience to the adverse health effects of stress has also been tied to factors that could influence how one perceives a situation (threat versus challenge) and how one responds to stressors (Harrell et al., 2011; Hennessy et al., 2009; Matthews and Gallo, 2011; Ziersch et al., 2011). Increasing attention has focused on the implications for health behaviors and social interactions that are created by the built environment. Important areas for future cross-national research on environmental factors and health include (1) characterizing levels and distributions of environmental risk factors using comparable measures across countries; (2) documenting inequalities in the distribution of these environmental factors; (3) identifying the extent to which these environmental factors affect health and the extent to which their effects are modulated by individual-, community-, or country-level factors; (4) examining directly the contribution of environmental factors to health differences between the United States and other high-income countries; and (5) studying national, regional, and local country policies that may curb levels of adverse environmental exposures, reduce the extent to which they are inequitably distributed, or buffer their effects. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. Physical Environment is the part of the human environment that includes purely physical factors (as soil, climate, water supply) Physical environment means the natural and man made features of an area. In general, U.S. residential environments are highly dominated by Americans’ reliance on private automobile transportation. 14Trust data are based on the question: “Generally speaking would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people?” Data come from two different surveys: the European Social Survey (2008 wave 4) for OECD European countries and the International Social Survey Programme (2007 wave) for non-OECD Europe (OECD, 2011e). Although Chapter 6 documented a long-standing trend of greater poverty and other social problems in the United States than in peer countries. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Research has identified specific physiologic mechanisms by which these exposures affect inflammatory, autonomic, and vascular processes (Brook et al., 2010; Tzivian, 2011). An important factor that influences a range of environmental features relates to patterns of land use and transportation. Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use. Although many of the data reviewed in this chapter are highly suggestive of an important role for environmental factors, more empirical evidence is needed to draw definitive conclusions. 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